Being located on the Pacific Ring of Fire, an area with a high degree of tectonic activity, Indonesia must cope with the constant risk of natural disasters, namely volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods and tsunamis. The country is estimated to have 129 active volcanoes, and several hundred others are now considered extinct. More than five million people live within the "danger zone" of a volcano, and there is at least one significant volcano eruption in Indonesia every year. On 4 December 2021, Mount Semeru in East Java's Lumajang District erupted, shooting a towering column of ash into the sky, killing more than 43 people and leaving many with severe burns while many more were missing. Mount Semeru is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes and is Java's tallest mountain. Cover photo of Indonesia's Mount Sinabung by Yosh Ginsu on Unsplash.