Raising Public Consciousness About the Importance of Freedom of Expression In Democratic Society and On Enhancing the Quality of Life of the Ordinary Citizen: the Case of Indonesia
Past research on communication-development in Less Developed Countries (LDCs) has mostly led to the implementation, and continued use, of the social control theory, including the concepts of “SMCR” and “E” (Sender-Message-Channel, Receiver, and Effect), "modernisation with its diffusion of innovation", "dependency along with social marketing," and "multiplicity along with participatory models." Yet, after years of use, these approaches have not been successful in reaching development goals in Indonesia, a seemingly democratic society which enjoys respect of freedom of the press and an enhanced quality of life for its population in general. Why is this so? What went wrong? Which angles need to be addressed now in the perspectives of communication and development in order to pave the way for a democratic society in Indonesia?